Grain flow orientation criteria

Central to our forging expertise is the mastery of different heating technologies tailored to meet the demands of varied geometries and sizes. For large sizes and irregular shapes, we use natural gas furnaces, ensuring the right temperature to achieve optimal deformation. On the other hand, for smaller bars and regular geometries, we harness the power of induction heating, a precise method that guarantees superior results.


The closed die process is used to be competitive and versatile, due to its closed and interchangeable dies, avoiding a loss caused by the machining losses. The die orientation, located aside from the shaft, allows Irizar Forge to produce items according to strict standards while establishing the required dimensions for the shaft, eye hole, etc.

The open die forging process is useful as preparation of pre-forms with total flexibility to shape (weights and dimensions) later to be stamped with proper tools adapted to pieces produced according to the requirements. The open die forging process is the most ancient type of forging and it is so termed due to the metal’s deformation not limited (free–forged) by its shape or mass.

    The beneficial effects produced by hot-forge are at least 5 compared to other non-forged materials:

    • Reduction of the final forging, in the case of lifting hooks for cranes of 1:5
    • Creation of grain flow, due to molecular alignment and arrangement
    • Grain flow orientation. The mechanical properties of the product improve considerably if the effort is applied in the direction of the formed fibre and worsened if it is applied in a perpendicular direction
    • Refining of the grain, in order to guarantee the mechanical values after the thermal treatment
    • Elimination of cavities, porosity and blowholes. Due to the huge pressure the material is subjected to during the forging process. It is compacted and such undesirable characteristics are eliminated (at the same time, said huge pressures and displacements of the material could generate forging folds)